Modeling Electricity Demand Response Potential for Residential Households in Ghana, Case Study of 300 Households in Sunyani
The purpose of the study is to estimate electricity demand response potential in the residential sector by using the security condition of the grid. Three hundred households in the Sunyani municipality were used in the study. The 300 households were selected to typically represent the different types of homes in Ghana. The study explores the feasibility of using demand response in the residential sector as an alternative short-to-medium term measure for maintaining grid security during critical periods of supply constraints. Using consumer preference surveys, data on customer response motivation concerning three factors namely, cost (price), environment and security (risk of black-outs), was collected together with energy audit information about residential customers’ energy use activities during morning, afternoon and evening hours. Hourly load profiles of major household appliances were estimated using data logging and information on how customers would modify their energy use in a hypothetical supply constraint situation was also collected. The study estimated the potential reduction in demand using the Maximum Diversified Demand (MDD) modeling. Survey results show that residential consumers are willing to reduce their energy consumption to avoid a blackout though, they consider the price of electricity as the foremost reason that influences reduction in energy use. The modeling results show a 6.8%, 4.3% and a 13.6% voluntary reduction in demand for the morning, afternoon and evening respectively in an event of a threat of blackout if the information on the state of the grid is well communicated to households.