Modeling the Transportation of Solid Waste from the Transfer Stations to the Disposal Sites in the Tamale Metropolis
Keywords:waste, management, transportation, modeling, cost, transfer station, disposal site
The study modelled the transportation of solid waste in Tamale metropolis. For management purposes, the Metropolis has been divided into two with one section managed by the Waste Management Department (WMD) and the other by ZoomLion (ZL). It was estimated that 240-260 tons of waste was generated a day in the management area of the WMD out of which about 70% was hauled daily. This left a backlog of 30% uncollected every day. Within the management area of ZL, about 110-115 tons of waste was generated a day and about 46% was hauled daily. This left a backlog of about 54% (Puopil, 2010). This deficit has led to littering, heaping of waste and overflowing of skips. This avoidable situation could lead to contagious diseases. Data were obtained from primary and secondary sources. These were used to construct models for minimizing the cost of waste transportation to the available disposal sites. Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM) and Modified Distribution (MODI) method were used to determine the initial feasible solution and optimal solution respectively. The model determined the optimal routes for waste transportation in each of the operational areas. Using the model, WMD would clear 175 tons of solid waste daily using GH¢171.45 instead of GH¢ 383.94; and ZL Ghana Ltd, Tamale would clear 51tons using GH¢197.80 instead of GH¢977.03, if no condition has changed. Working outside the models may increase the expenditure. The use of R3 (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle) would also help to reduce the cost of solid waste transportation.